Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah “Zafar” (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor of India he was a member of the Timurid Dynasty. Prior to defeating him in battle and imprisoning him in Yangoon, Myanmar, the British East India Company reduced Bahadur Shah Zafar and his family to a state of dependence. He was also one of the greatest Urdu poets of India, he wrote some of the finest Urdu poetry and used Zafar, as his pen name, meaning “victory”, as a nom de plume (takhallus) and wrote many Urdu ghazals under it. His Urdu poetry is still very popular.
The British had conquered almost all of India and in about 1857 had banished Zafar to Burma where he died remembering the motherland to his last breath.